Wednesday, March 14, 2007

A-Z of Hair terminology

Bangs or fringe
: (bangs in the U.S. and Canada) is the front part of the hair, cut to hang or curl over the forehead. In hairstyling, it can be swept to the side, similar to the side part, except that it does not cover the eyes. The British term fringe refers to the resemblence of the short row of hair. The North American term bangs may have come from the use of the word bang to connote something sudden or abrupt, and the idea that the hair over the forehead comes to an abrupt end after just a few inches.

The Beehive: a large "big hair" style popular in the 1960s involving massive amounts of styling product and backcombing, also known as french lacing. The beehive is a woman's hairstyle that resembles a beehive. It is also known as the B-52, for its similarity to the bulbous nose of the B-52 Stratofortress bomber. It originated in the USA in 1958 as one of a variety of elaborately teased and lacquered versions of "big hair" that developed from earlier pageboy and bouffant styles. The peak of its popularity was in the 1960s, and it was especially popular in the United States and other Western countries. The beehive remains an enduring symbol of 1960s kitsch. By the late 1960s the beehive became unfashionable, although it probably continued to influence later female hair styles.

Big hair: various styles denoting a lot of volume. Big hair is a term that can refer to hairstyles that emphasize large volume or largely styled hair. Big hair was popular in the late 1970s, as popularized by Dolly Parton and Farrah Fawcett, a development from earlier bouffant styles. The term is also used in the punk, goth and alternative cultures and is particularly associated with alternative fashion of the 1980s, or inspired by the period. In either usage, big hair in modern times generally suggests an eye-catching, untidy, tangled, voluminous hairstyle.

Bouffant: [bu:fa:nt] another "big hair" style. A bouffant: is a type of hairstyle characterized by hair piled high on the head and hanging down on the sides. It was a mainstream hairstyle in the mid-to-late 17th century in western Europe. In modern times, the bouffant was popular in Western culture in the 1960’s.

Bun: (also known as a Bobtail) is a type of hairstyle, typically worn by women, where the hair is pulled back from the face, twisted or plaited, and wrapped in a circular coil around itself, typically on the back of the head or neck. They can either be secured with a hairpiece, a hairnet and bobby pins or simply by bobby pins. They may be tightly gathered or slightly messier and more informal. Buns, like ponytails, may cause headaches if worn too tight or up too high on the head.

Blowout/Taper: hair with anywhere from 5 millimetres to 50 millimetres (a quarter inch to 2 inches) of the fringe "taped" up with hair gel. Often worn by Italian guidos, but is also popular among other teenage boys and young men. A blowout also refers to a blowdry style using a round brush.

Bob: a short cut for women, A bob is a short haircut that became modern for women in the early 1920s. In the 1970s it became popular as a men's style, in which the hair is cut short, but a weighted area is left to fall between the ears and chin. It was invented in 1909 in Paris by the hairdresser Antoine, who was inspired by "Joan of Arc." In Britain it became popular in "Bloomsbury" circles before the end of the First World War, but was made widely popular in the 1920s by flappers. At the time it was considered a sign of a liberated woman. In 1924 the razor cut shingle bob was introduced.

Chelsea girl : (AKA Chelsea, skinhead girl, skingirl, skinbird, or Renee) is a girl or woman who is part of the skinhead subculture. The term refers to her hairstyle, which involves shaving the crown and occiput of her head and leaving the front, back and sides as fringes. The hairstyle is more commonly called feather cut in the United Kingdom. Females involved in the suedehead subculture (a skinhead offshoot) were called sorts.

Crop: a very short woman's cut.

Croydon facelift: the hair is pulled back tight and tied into a high bun or ponytail at the back. In the United Kingdom, it is often associated as the stereotypical hairstyle of female chavs.

Downtown Updo: A sophisticated Updo for long haired women.

Feathered: the defining features of this style were the Side Parting and the length which varied from just showing the ears to almost shoulder length, this style rose dramatically in popularity during the 1970s but died down in the mid 1980s; it is slowly gaining back popularity; arguably the most famous wearer being Farrah Fawcett during the 1970s.

Finger wave: popular in the 1920s and 1930s. Executed with large amounts of gel or product and forming waves and ridges with your finger or a comb. The process involves pinching the hair between the fingers and combing the hair in alternating directions to make a wave shape. A lotion was applied to the hair to help it retain its shape. This style was eventually superseded by hair rollers.

French braid: Unlike a regular three-strand braid, a French braid starts with small sections of hair at the crown of a person's head, and intermittently, more hair is added to each section as the braid progresses down the head. The classic French braid is a single braid at the back of one's head, though variations on this hairstyle include side braids and twists.

French twist: A classic "updo" in which long hair is gathered into a ponytail, then twisted together, and finally tucked and pinned together along the length of the roll.

Hime cut: (literally princess cut) is a hairstyle usually worn by women that is frequently seen in anime and manga consisting of straight, usually cheek-length side-cut bangs and frontal fringe. The rest of the hair is usually worn long and straightened. As the name suggests, the style is thought to have originated, or at least become common, in the Imperial court during the Heian Period of Japanese history, when noble women would sometimes grow out their hair for their entire lives.

Jheri curl: a perm that loosens the curls of a person with coarse hair; known more for the oily residue of the chemicals used ("Jheri Curl Juice") than the actual style. Technically known as a soft curl permanent. The Jheri curl (often incorrectly spelled Jerry curl and/or Jeri Curl) is a hairstyle that was common and popular in the African American community in the late 1970s and throughout the 80s. Invented and named for Jheri Redding, the Jheri Curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer.

Japanese hair straightening: a process that takes usually wavy or curly hair and breaks the cystine bonds by way of chemicals, then a hot iron reorganizes the structure of the hair leaving it soft, super-straight and healthy looking. More commonly, many people straighten their hair themselves in a simple, temporary way, through the use of a hair straightener.

Layered hair: Mostly worn by women, where the top layers of hair are cut shorter than the layers beneath. Also, the hair is usually straightened to give best effects. Layered hair is a type of hair style intended to give the illusion of length and volume while keeping hair close to the head and easily manageable. Hair is arranged into layers, with the top layers (those that grow nearer the crown) cut shorter than the layers beneath. This allows the tips of the top layers to blend apparently seamlessly with layers beneath. More recent versions of the hairstyle involve making clear distinction between the various layers so that they do not blend seamlessly. In some cases, hair colouring can be applied to certain layers and not others to achieve a distinctive effect. The layered haircut is done by lifting the hair perpendicular to the head and cutting it straight across. Also a quick layered cut can be achieved by putting the hair in a high pony and cutting it. There is more than one type of 'layered' cut, two main ones being the uniform layer and long graduation. With the uniform layer, the hair is cut at 90 degrees to the head. With long graduation, the hair is cut at 135-145 degrees, creating more visible layers.

Messed up hair or 'Bedhead': A usually shaggy, mid length hairstyle which is supposed to slightly resemble what the wearer's hair looks like when they first wake up, hence its name. Usually worn on men, however, some women may have this hairstyle.

Mohawk or 'Mohican': long hair divided into sections, which are then braided and worn down, both sides are shaved or buzzed, long and usually spiked in the middle. Today, mohawks are still associated with the punk subulture, but have become a part of mainstream fashion and are also shared by many other subcultures.

Odango: a women's hairstyle consisting of two long pigtails emanating from two perfect "spheres" of hair on the top of the head; Made famous by Sailor Moon.

Pageboy: a Womans hairstyle in which the hair is turned under and generally from below the ear to above the shoulder save for a fringe in the front.

Perm: or "permanent wave," is a chemical-induced curling of naturally straight hair; originally created electrically with an apparatus resembling an electric chair.
There are two parts to a perm, the physical action of wrapping the hair, and the chemical phase. Both of these can affect the result. Important physical variables in are what type of rod is used, how the hair is wrapped and how end papers are used. The two most common types of rods are straight and concave; each giving a different curl effect. The wrapping method is either spiral or croquinole, and various types and positionings of end papers can be used with any combination of the above. Generally, smaller rods will produce smaller, tighter curls and increase the appearance of shortening the hair.
The chemical solution used in the perming process is determined by the client's hair type and the pH of the solution. Classic alkaline perms are used for stronger, coarser hair. They work at room temperature and usually contain ammonium thioglycolate in the pH range of 9-10. Acid perms are used on more delicate or thinner hair. They require outside heat application and usually contain glycerol monothioglycolate in the pH range of 6.5-8.2.

Pigtails: long hair is parted in the middle and tied on the sides, often curled into ringlets (hence the name).

Pixie: a very short hair cut for women that almost resemble school boy looks.

Pompadour: big wave in the front, named for Madame de Pompadour aristocratic fashion leader of pre-Revolutionary France, mistress of Louis XV of France; Elvis Presley had one.

Ponytail: a hairstyle where most of the wearer's hair is pulled away from the face and gathered at the back.

Relaxer: typically done on black women, this is the process of making kinky or course hair staight. Timed applications are required.

Ringlet: A ringlet is a type of hairstyle. It is achieved by wrapping a lock of hair around the length of a thin curling iron or can be sported naturally by people with sufficiently tightly curled hair. Ringlets are often also known as tube curls.

Sidefringe: A haircut with fringe long enough to cover the eyes, but brushed to one side so only one eye is visible.

Sophisticated Chignon: Divide pony tail in half then smooth first half with natural bristle brush and twist it around itself to create a low loop. Pin into place. Repeat with the second half.

Updo: This hairstyle is where the hair is put up on the top or back of the head and is commonly used for formal events such as weddings and proms.

Beatle haircut or 'Moptop':
a hairstyle influenced after the fashion of the same ones the members of The Beatles had. It was relatively new to Americans at the time, but not an uncommon British haircut. During the height of "Beatlemania," "Beatle wigs" were sold.

Buzz cut: also called a butch cut; short all over. A buzz cut (sometimes known as a wiffle or crew cut) is the American name for a type of haircut named after the sound of the electric razor, which is used to shear the hair very closely to the scalp. In the United Kingdom, the haircut is called a skinhead (although the skinhead hairstyle was originally called a skiffle). In the Philippines it's called a semi. In Singapore it is often called a "GI (number)", with the number representing the seven different grades.
Bowl cut: also known as a beach cut, pot haircut, and a mushroom cut, is a haircut where the hair is cut short on the sides and back and allowed to grow long on the top, looking as though someone put a bowl on the head and cut off all the visible hair. A famous bowl cut wearer in the USA was Moe Howard, who wore it as part of his Three Stooges persona.

Caesar cut: a short men's cut with longer fringe, also called a Clooney cut; widely popular among men from the early 1990s to the present.

Comb over: is a hairstyle worn by bald or balding men in which the hair on one side of the head is grown long and then combed over the bald area. A variation of the combover (whereby baldness is concealed by long hairs combed in three separate directions) has a U.S. Patent 4,022,227 by Donald J. Smith and his father, Frank J. Smith, of Orlando, Florida, who were awarded an Ig Nobel Prize in Engineering for their effort.

Crew cut: The crew cut was adopted by the United States armed forces during World War II, and became a civilian fashion for men throughout the 1950s. The cut was felt to be "clean-cut, athletic, and patriotic." In a hand-to-hand fighting, it also adds a slight advantage by making the wearer impossible to grab by the hair. By the mid-1960s, the crew cut was generally seen as a mark of conservative political opinions, as opposed to the longer hair styles favored by those of more liberal views.

Duck's Ass: combed long on sides, parted in back, also called ducktail or southback; the parting in the back caused the hair to stick up, hence the name. Also known as a "D.A.". Also when shorter hair is combed to meet in the center of the nape, especially when someone has a natural tail in their hairline.

Emo hair: A common request among teenagers in the 2000s. Typically longer, razor cut style with long fringe in their eyes.

Fade: short buzz cut on the side faded into a longer buzzcut on the top, ie. a 2 on the side and a 4 on top. Can also be a finger-length or longer scissor/razor/clipper over comb cut on top.
Fauxhawk: a fake Mohawk: short on the sides and back, medium length on top pushed up in a Mohawk direction.

Flattop: just as it says, when combined with a D.A., called a "Detroit" because the flat top is not always compatible with a round head, there is often a spot on the top that is buzzed shorter, almost to the point of being shaved; this area is called the landing strip. Often done with a large comb with a level called a flattopper. Or a well trained eye.

Fofa: short to medium length on the sides and back, with a receding hairline from the forehead back due to a natural baldness; usually found on distinguished gentlemen and derived from the style of the monks.

Goatee Connect: This is where a thin line is made of the side burns and connects into the beard.

High and tight: cut/buzzed very short (or even shaved) on sides and back up to the crown where the hair is left longer, can be a variation of crew cut or flattop.

Horseshoe Flattop: sides are shaved and back is shaved to the top of the head, making the remaining hair looks from above like the top is cut like a horseshoe. A horseshoe flattop is an extremely short haircut worn almost exclusively by men in the United States. Although relatively rare in the civilian population, it is often seen among certain military subcultures and is closely associated with U.S. Marines (particularly infantrymen, reconnaissance, and Drill Instructors), U.S. Army Rangers, and law enforcement officers.The haircut's most prominent feature is the U-shaped ring of hair on the top of the head, which resembles a horseshoe shape. This look is achieved by a barber clipping all of the hair on the sides and back of the head - as well as a strip of growth on the very top of the head - down to the scalp. What is left is essentially a nearly bald head with a horseshoe of slightly longer hair left on top. The bald area in the very top center of the head is sometimes referred to as the "landing strip," because its stark contrast to the surrounding hair resembles the grassless area where aircraft land or take off.

Induction cut: the very shortest of hairstyles, without actually shaving the head with a razor. Ivy League cut more properly Ivy League Crew-cut. The name derives because this is the Classic Crew-cut worn by Ivy League Crew Teams starting at Yale back in the 1920's. Same as a Standard Crew-cut, or Princeton Cut or Harvard Clip or French Crop or Varsity Cut or College Cut: As are all Crew cuts, an all over taper cut. Hair on top is evenly tapered or graduated in length in accordance to the slope of the skull, to give a horizontal appearance when the hair is combed up and back off the forehead, and the head is viewed in side profile. When viewed from the front the hair appears to generally conform to the contour of the skull but the conformity can be adjusted to make the skull appear less rounded and squarer, giving a more masculine shape.

Mullet: this Haircut is popular with young men and became popular in the mid-1980s, A mullet is a hairstyle that is short in the front, on the top, and on the sides, but long in the back. The hairstyle was popular during the late 20th Century, from about 1973 to 1994. Mullets have been worn by both males and females of all ages. There's nothing quite as bad as a bad haircut. And perhaps the worst of all is the cut we call The Mullet.

Mushroom or Butt-cut: Buzzed on the sides and back and longer on the top. Similar to the bowl cut. Was a popular hairstyle among young boys during the early to mid 1990s.

Quiff: Any hairstyle where part of the hair is put up high on the top of the head.

Rat tail: A male hairstyle where the hair is cut short all over except for a long strip of hair growing in the back, typically at about 5 millimetres to 25 millimetres (½ inch to an inch) wide and can be as long as all the way down the back. Mostly found on preteen boys, but some men wear them too. Rattail haircuts are occasionally found on women, also.

Ronaldo cut: shaved head except for the front thirdish which is buzzed. Named after the footballer, who used to have the same hairstyle.

Short back and sides: A short haircut, as the name suggests.

Sidelock: Long in front of the ears, short in back. The hair that is directly over the ears is allowed to grow long, but it is combed forward, in front of the ears, where it is sometimes twisted or curled if there isn't a natural curl to start with. The opposite of the Tom Hanks backward sweep cut, or the Duck's Ass cut.

Tonsure: This haircut is most identifiable with European monks; having a rim of hair about the head with the top shaved off.

Wings: a new hairstyle similar to the Beatles cut but with the side and back fringe flipped up, occasionally by the use of a ballcap, usually worn with medium-long haircuts.

Afro: a hairstyle popular with people of African descent, it is often considered symbolic of Black racial pride; however the hairstyle can also be worn by non-Blacks who have tightly curled hair
Bantu/Zulu knots: hairstyle of African origin consisting of many small buns. Can also be used in an updo in place of curling and arranging hair.

Chonmage: a samurai's topknot; the hair on the top of the head was usually shaved, and the rest of the hair gathered together and tied in a topknot; a modified version is still worn by some sumo wrestlers.

Cornrows: raised, continuous braids, woven closely to the scalp; originating in indigenous Africa, they remain a popular African American hairstyle.

Dreadlocks: where hair is divided into many long, matted plaits; well known as a Rastafarian hairstyle. However, fake and real dreadlocks are also popular among other groups, such as the rave, goth and cyber subcultures, usually in many bright, unusual colors.

Khokhol: also spelled 'chochol' and 'chachol', a Slavic name for a longer tuft of hair left on top or on the front side of the otherwise cleanly shaven or shortly cut man's hair.